Department of Chemistry

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David Pratt

Professor Emeritus

Contact

605 CHVRN
Chevron Science Center 219 Parkman Avenue

Pittsburgh, PA 15260
412-624-8200

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Research Overview

Chemical Reactivity, Especially of Biologically Relevant Systems, as Probed by High Resolution Electronic Spectroscopy in the Gas Phase

Structure dictates function. Nowhere is this more apparent than in biological systems. An enzyme functions in the way that it does because of the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms in its vicinity. Much of our current understanding of the molecular basis of life is based in large part on recent determinations of the structures of proteins by X-ray crystallography and NMR techniques. Knowing how proteins are constructed has given us much insight into how they form, how they function, and how they evolve in time.

Our own goals are no less ambitious. We develop new high resolution spectroscopic techniques for the determination of the structures of molecules and their assemblies. A recent example is rotationally resolved electronic spectroscopy in molecular beams, in which the resolution approaches 1 part in 109. We use this technique to determine the moments of inertia of isolated molecules and complexes, from which we obtain information about their three-dimensional structures. We also use this technique to determine how the structures change when they absorb light, thereby modeling chemical reactions. We ask, and answer, questions such as: What kind of interactions exist between two or more species to promote their assembly? How do the electronic charge distributions of the species interact? How are the structures of the individual species modified when they interact? Do they react? Why? And how do the answers to these questions depend upon the relative orientations of the constituents?

In recent work, we have shown how the electronic distributions of two atoms change when they are brought together to form a diatomic molecule, how a solute molecule is distorted towards a zwitterionic form when a solvent molecule is attached, how the motion of a molecule in free space is affected when it is weakly bound to a surface, how the lone pairs of a Lewis base orient themselves towards an acid in a proton-transfer (neutralization) reaction, initiated by light, and how the vibrational motions of a molecule are affected by neighboring molecules, with which only weak, van der Waals forces exist.

Our future work will continue to focus on these questions. We plan to study the geometric constraints on intramolecular excimer formation, hydrogen atom transfer, and "water-assisted" tautomerization reactions. We are designing gas-phase mimics of function in several biological systems, such as the catalytic triad in chymotrypsin. And we are developing new techniques for the study of analogous processes in the condensed phase, including a near-field scanning optical microscope that will employ a new CW laser as the light source. Awards: Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award- 1994, Earle K. Plyler Award of the American Physical Society- 1999, Chancellor's Distinguished Research Award- 2001, Pittsburgh Award of the American Chemical Society- 2005.

Recent Updates:

Chemistry in the Natural SciencesJCE Online Conf

 

Awards

  • Chancellor's Distinguished Teaching Award- 1994, Earle K. Plyler Award of the American
  • Physical Society- 1999, Chancellor's Distinguished Research Award- 2001, Pittsburgh Award of the American Chemical Society- 2005

Department

Department of Chemistry

Publications

“Vibronic Coupling in Indole. 1. Theoretical Description of the 1La-1Lb Interaction and the Electronic Spectrum,” Christian Brand, Jochen Kuepper, David W. Pratt, W. Leo Meerts, Daniel Kruegler, Joerg Tatchen, and Michael Schmitt, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 12, 2010, Pages 4968
“Vibronic Coupling in Indole. 2. Investigation of the 1La -1Lb Interaction Using Rotationally Resolved Electronic Spectroscopy,” Jochen Kuepper, David W. Pratt, W. Leo Meerts, Christian Brand, Joerg Tatchen, and Michael Schmitt, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 12, 2010, Pages 4980
“High Resolution Electronic Spectroscopy of 4-Methylanisole in the Gas Phase. Barrier Height Determinations of the Methyl Group Torsional Motion,” Philip J. Morgan, Leonardo Alvarez-Valtierra, and David W. Pratt, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., Vol. 12, 2010, Pages 8323
“Stark-Effect Studies of 1-Phenylpyrrole in the Gas Phase. Dipole Reversal upon Electronic Excitation,” Jessica A. Thomas, Justin W. Young, Leonardo Alvarez-Valtierra, and David W. Pratt, J. Phys. Chem. Letters, Vol. 1, 2010, Pages 2017
“Measuring the Conformational Properties of 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexahydropyrene and Its van der Waals Complexes,” Philip J. Morgan, Joseph R. Roscioli, Adam J. Fleisher, and David W. Pratt, J. Chem Phys., Vol. 133, 2010, Pages 024302
“Rotationally Resolved Electronic Spectroscopy of 5-Methoxyindole,” Christian Brand, et al.,, J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 133, 2010, Pages 024303
“High Resolution Electronic Spectroscopy of 9-Fluorenemethanol in the Gas Phase. New Insights into the Properties of π-Hydrogen Bonds,” D. M. Miller, J. W. Young, P. J. Morgan, and D. W. Pratt, Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 133, 2010, Pages 124312
“Chemistry in the Natural Sciences,” Peter F. M. Koehler and David W. Pratt, Journal of Chemical Education, Vol. 87, 2010, Pages 1455
“Rotationally Resolved S1-S0 Electronic Spectrum of 2,6-Diaminopyridine: A Four-fold Barrier Problem,” C. L. Clements, J. W. Young, and D. W. Pratt, Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 114, 2010, Pages 12005
“Flickering Dipoles in the Gas Phase: Structures, Internal Dynamics, and Dipole Moments of β-naphthol-H2O in its Ground and Excited Electronic States,” David W. Pratt, Adam J. Fleisher, Justin W. Young, Alessandro Cembran, and Jiali Gao, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol. 134, 2011, Pages 114304
“Next Generation Techniques in the High Resolution Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Molecules,” David W. Pratt, Justin L. Neill, Kevin O. Douglass and Brooks H. Pate, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol. 13, 2011, Pages 7253-7262